Volume 6, Issue 3, 2020

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The complete Volume 6, Issue 3, 2020, is available to download here! Detailed information for each paper included in Volume 6, Issue 3, 2020, is presented bellow:

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Editorial

Evangelos Christou, Editor-in-Chief, International Hellenic University, Greece, Anestis Fotiadis, Associate Editor, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.1-2.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4110081

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We are pleased to present the twelfth publication of JTHSM (volume 6, issue 3), the third and latest issue in its sixth year of publication. In previous issues, this journal presented original refereed papers, both conceptual and research-based, focused on various topics of tourism, heritage, and services with an emphasis on marketing and management. Volume 6, issue 3 focus on furthering the journal’s scope and consolidating its position in both conceptual developments and practical applications in tourism, heritage, and services through publication of nine quality manuscripts that underwent rigorous double-blind reviewing: five full papers, one case study, one research note, one industry viewpoint, and one book review.

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FULL PAPERS:

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Modeling and predicting foreign tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka: A comparison of three different methods

Hemantha Premakumara Diunugala, Beijing Institute of Technology, China, & Claudel Mombeuil, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.3-13.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69874-0, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4055960

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Abstract

Purpose: This study compares three different methods to predict foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) to Sri Lanka from top-ten countries and also attempts to find the best-fitted forecasting model for each country using five model performance evaluation criteria.

Methods: This study employs two different univariate-time-series approaches and one Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach to develop models that best explain the tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka from the top-ten tourist generating countries. The univariate-time series approach contains two main types of statistical models, namely Deterministic Models and Stochastic Models.

Results: The results show that Winter’s exponential smoothing and ARIMA are the best methods to forecast tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka. Furthermore, the results show that the accuracy of the best forecasting model based on MAPE criteria for the models of India, China, Germany, Russia, and Australia fall between 5 to 9 percent, whereas the accuracy levels of models for the UK, France, USA, Japan, and the Maldives fall between 10 to 15 percent.

Implications: The overall results of this study provide valuable insights into tourism management and policy development for Sri Lanka. Successful forecasting of FTAs for each market source provide a practical planning tool to destination decision-makers.

Keywords: foreign tourist arrivals, winter’s exponential smoothing, ARIMA, simple recurrent neural network, Sri Lanka

JEL Classification: C5, Z32, C45

Modeling and Predicting Foreign Tourist Arrivals to Sri Lanka: A Comparison of Three Different Methods

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Childhood experience and (de)diasporisation: Potential impacts on the tourism industry

Hugues Seraphin, University of Winchester, United Kingdom
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.14-24.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69875-5, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4056264

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Abstract

Purpose: This study is addressing the dearth of research regarding children in the tourism industry and cognate sectors, alongside contributing to existing literature on diaspora, and diaspora tourism.

Methods: In order to get the most reliable results, triangulation, which is a form of mixed methods, that enables to view a topic from more than one perspective, is used.

Results: Post-colonial, post-conflict, and post-disaster destinations are relying heavily on their diaspora not only for the survival of their tourism industry, but more generally speaking for their economic and social sustainability. It is therefore very important for the country of origin to main a strong link with the members of the diaspora, whether they belong to the first or second generation onward of the diaspora. The main challenge is to keep the connection with the younger generation. The results of this study reveal that childhood experience of the country of origin is a transformative tool which can lead to either dediasporisation (if negative), or transnational attachment (if positive).

Implications: Destination Marketing Organisations therefore need to put in place suitable events (and activities) which are based on an edutainment and advertainment model, while applying other key principles. If successful, it is expected that children will go through three different stages: young diaspora thinkers, actioners; and transformers.

Keywords: diaspora, children experience, DMOs, sustainability, post-colonial, post-conflict, post-disaster destinations

JEL Classification: J13, F6, Q01, F54

Childhood Experience and (De)Diasporisation: Potential Impacts on the Tourism Industry

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Performance of restaurants: Recognizing competitive intensity and differentiation strategies

Collins Kankam-Kwarteng, Kumasi Technical University, Ghana, Barbara Osman (ORCiD), Takoradi Technical University, Ghana & Stephen Acheampong (ORCiD), Ghana Baptist University College, Ghana
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.25-34.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69925-3, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4059386

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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships between differentiation strategies, competitive intensity and restaurant performance. It was also to estimate the effect of interaction terms of differentiation strategies and competitive intensity on restaurant performance.

Methods: Data were obtained from 160 restaurant operators in the Ashanti region of Ghana through a structured questionnaire. The paths of the relationships were estimated and tested using regression analysis.

Results: The findings suggest that differentiation strategies have a significant impact on restaurant performance and that competitive intensity partially influence the performance of restaurants. Competitive intensity was, however, found not to moderate the relationship between differentiation strategies and restaurant performance.

Implications: The study findings will greatly help managers of the restaurant industry to appreciate the critical contribution of competitive intensity and differentiation strategies in estimating the performance of restaurants. The interactive terms of differentiation strategies and competitive intensity add to the divergent ways of measuring restaurant performance. This paper, therefore, contributes to the growing research in the restaurant industry.

Keywords: differentiation strategies, competitive intensity, restaurant performance

JEL Classification: L84, L8, L83

Performance of Restaurants: Recognizing Competitive Intensity and Differentiation Strategies

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Demystifying university rankings and their impact on reputation among consumers of higher education

Donghee Shin, Sungkyunkwan University, Korea & Hyeun-Dae Shin, Sungkyunkwan University, Korea
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.35-45.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69914-3, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4059978

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Abstract

Purpose: Several universities in different countries are using their college ranking as a marketing and branding tool. Main scope of this paper is to investigate the interrelation between college rankings in Korea and how they affect university service marketing and reputation.

Methods: Forty-six universities are examined through a non-parametric technique, by comparing three different Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models regarding their adeptness to their Research and Development Business Foundation; parametric methods used to measure efficiencies in the public or private sectors are Ratio Analysis, Productivity Index Approach and Functional Approach.

Results: The results delineate that the three model have different results since CCR and BCC models have better efficiency scores compared to SBM. Furthermore, public universities with local character seems to have better decision-making units leading to better branding.

Implications: Decision makers can enhance policies by improving the effectiveness and antagonism of Research and Development Business Foundations, to improve university’s reputation and attract more and better students. In spite of some valid considerations regarding the ranking of educational institutions in the world, ARWU (Academic Ranking of World Universities) is still a useful indicator for universities who wish to grow further, and will remain as a good guideline.

Keywords: university branding, university ranking, World Universities Ranking System, Korea, DEA

JEL Classification: A2, M00, M3

Demystifying University Rankings and Their Impact on Reputation Among Consumers of Higher Education

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The cultural impact of navigation design in global e-commerce

Peter Broeder, Tilburg University, The Netherlands & Anna Gkogka, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.46-53.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69985-4, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4064008

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Abstract

Purpose: The  present paper investigates the effect of the navigation design (static or dynamic) in e-commerce. Specifically, a comparison is made of consumers from two cultures: the Dutch and the Greek.

Methods: A total of 221 Dutch and Greek subjects participated in an experimental survey, where they judged an online search page of a hotel booking website. The study had a 2×2 between-subjects design with the factors navigation design (dynamic or static) and cultural background (Dutch or Greek). The primary dependent variable was the behavioural intention to use (the website). The hedonic and utilitarian attitudes were the mediators.

Results: The analysis of the results showed that the navigation design preferences are culturally affected and influence the consumers’ attitudes and behavioural intentions. The static navigation design was perceived as less useful, compared to the dynamic navigation design. For the Dutch group the dynamic navigation was more persuasive than the static one, whereas for the Greek group no significant difference was found.

Implications: As a future recommendation, localising the websites’ content should be considered in global e-commerce, especially when it comes to the hospitality and hotel industry, in order to avoid unintended effects that a specific navigation design may have on the targeted  audiences.

Keywords: e-commerce, navigation design, cultural differences, consumer behaviour

JEL Classification: M31, M37

The Cultural Impact of Navigation Design in Global E-Commerce

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CASE STUDY:

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Hotels hurting horrifically but hopeful: A case study of the Indianapolis hotel industry

Craig Webster, Ball State University, USA, Chih-Lun (Alan) Yen, Ball State University, USA & Sotiris Hji-Avgoustis, Ball State University, USA
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.54-58.

URN: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-69984-9, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4064023

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Abstract

Purpose: The authors delve into the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the hotel industry in Indianapolis in comparison to its competition. The impact of the virus on the hotel industry was analyzed for Indianapolis and its major competitors (Chicago, Nashville, St. Louis, San Antonio and Kansas City) to learn about how severe the impact is and attain insight into how these destinations can rebound.

Methods: This paper uses data from Smith Travel Research (STR), a service that produces daily hotel metrics often cited in mainstream media and academic journals. This secondary data source gathers data from participating hotels to obtain a sample of data on occupancy, average daily rate (ADR), and revenue per available room (RevPAR). The trends in the data are compared over time and between cities in the analysis.

Results: The findings illustrate that the hotel industry in Indianapolis was able to replace some transient visitors with contracts and group bookings, suggesting that proactive and assertive policies have assisted in the management of the crisis.

Implications: The findings from the analysis illustrate that leveraging innovative policies and looking at new markets may assist in the rebounding of convention tourism in Indianapolis and its competitors.

Keywords: Covid-19, ADR, RevPAR, hotel occupancy, Indianapolis

JEL Classification: H12, L83, N2

Hotels Hurting Horrifically but Hopeful: A Case Study of the Indianapolis Hotel Industry

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RESEARCH NOTE:

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One October tragedy in Las Vegas: An overview of tourists’ perceptions

Mehmet Erdem, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA, Saeed Vayghan, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA & Billy Bai, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.59-63.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4108431

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Abstract

Purpose: This study seeks to examine Las Vegas visitors’ perception about security in Las Vegas and the perceived risks associated with traveling to Las Vegas following the One October mass shooting. It also aims to explore potential Las Vegas visitors ‘attitudes towards the proactive security measures implemented by Las Vegas resorts after the One October tragedy.

Methods: The study is descriptive in nature. The data was collected through a web-based survey that comprised a national sample of 414 adults from the United States.

Results: The results indicate that despite the tragic One October mass shooting in Las Vegas and the associated media coverage, security is not a major concern for visitors to Las Vegas. The findings of this study also suggest that Las Vegas visitors approve of existing and emerging security procedures.

Implications: Findings point out to an opportunity to capitalize on the perceived enhanced security measures in Las Vegas and to put emphasis on addressing financial risk concerns via marketing and public relations campaigns.

Keywords: Las Vegas, security, tourism, tourist behavior, resorts

JEL Classification: L83, M31, Z33

One October Tragedy in Las Vegas: An Overview of Tourists’ Perceptions

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INDUSTRY VIEWPOINT:

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Destination design: An integrative perspective on destinations from design studies

Greta Erschbamer, Eurac Research, Italy
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.64-66.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4109020

This viewpoint introduces the concept of destination design and shows perspectives and approaches for the development of destinations. Destination design allows an integral view through design studies perspectives, where elements such as transdisciplinarity, participatory approaches, creative and disruptive ways of thinking related to design studies are introduced. Moreover, design approaches are characterized by a focus on problem-solving, a mixture of creativity and analysis and its capability to break through conventional knowledge systems in order to learn and develop existing structures such as destinations. Lastly, an agenda shows how to further develop this concept and which elements need to be included for its implementation.

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BOOK REVIEW:

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Magical Realist Sociologies of Belonging and Becoming: The Explorer

Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Published online: 30 October 2020, JTHSM, 6(3), pp.61-62.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4109076

Review of: Tzanelli, R., 2020. Magical Realist Sociologies of Belonging and Becoming: The Explorer. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0367432393

A critical review of the book titled “Magical Realist Sociologies of Belonging and Becoming: The Explorer” and authored by Rodanthi Tzanelli. Based on this review, this book discuss in-depth a structural dualism that not only helps us to expand our understanding and dichotomies around the problem of ecology and climate change but gives a clear diagnosis on the Western magical imaginary in a digital and hyper-global world. At least for this review, Magical realist sociologies of belonging and becoming brings a clear and fresh position to the foreground, scrutinizing on the other side of imperialism as well as the impacts of digital technologies in the daily lifestyle. The darkness says much of the mainstream cultural values of society than we certainly imagine. For those readers concerned by politics and mobilities, this book offers a high-quality and elegantly-written text which articulates magisterially different academic position, viewpoints and theories into an all-encompassing diagnosis.

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