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Interactions between stakeholders in Lourdes: An ‘Alpha’ framework approach

Hugues, Séraphin, The University of Winchester Business School, United Kingdom & Nathalie Jarraud, University of Pau, France
Published online: 30 May 2022, JTHSM, 8(1), pp.48-57.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6583743

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Séraphin, H., & Jarraud, N. (2022). Interactions between stakeholders in Lourdes: An ‘Alpha’ framework approach. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 8(1), 48–57. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6583743

The Impact of External Factors on ICT Usage Practices at Unesco World Heritage Sites


Purpose: Taking Lourdes as an en example, this paper aims at understanding the relationship amongst the main tourism and events industry stakeholders.

Methods: To achieve the objective of the study, data were collected through interviews of key players. The results where then filtered through the ‘Alpha’ framework to theorise the interactions amongst stakeholders.

Results: The study also provides a (1) typology of the ultimate alpha syndrome in the context of destination management; (2) typology of the delta syndrome. (3) Finally, the study argues that in destinations where there is an ultimate alpha hallmark event, or an ultimate alpha stakeholder, a situation quite similar to an anti-competitive market can arise. This situation is referred as ‘ultimate alpha tourism monopoly’.

Implications: Based on the findings of this study, Destination Marketing Organisations need to ensure that there is a suitable synergy amongst all stakeholders involved in the tourism industry (and related sector), to avoid anti-competitive market ‘ultimate alpha tourism monopoly’ to arise.

Keywords: Lourdes, Alpha framework, Hallmark, Destination management, Performance

JEL Classification: O52, Z3, L1

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